Developing a Strategic Plan for an Organization

By Anthony M. Wanjohi: There are many approaches to developing strategic plans. This article provides an overview of how to develop a typical strategic plan for an organization. Such should include introductory section providing basis of the strategy, sector review, organization vision, mission and mandate; conducting situation analysis in terms of stakeholders analysis, SWOT analysis and PESTLE analysis; developing strategic goals/ issues and objectives; drawing resource mobilization strategies and monitoring and evaluation framework.

1.0 Introduction

This chapter is expected to cover the following areas:

  • Sector Review
  • Basis of the strategy
  • Vision statement
  • Mission Statement
  • Core Values
  • Mandate of the Board
  • Achievement
  • Strategic Issues

2.0 Situation Analysis

This chapter covers stakeholders analysis, SWOT
and PESTLE analysis in the light of the strategic plan.

2.1 Stakeholders Analysis

These include:

  • The Government
  • Development partners
  • Financial Institutions
  • Management Board
  • Staff/members etc

2.2 SWOT Analysis

KENPRO carries out a SWOT analysis in order to determine the Board’s / organization’s or institution’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

2.3 PESTLE Analysis

KENPRO Team takes the participants through a political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental (PESTLE) scan. These factors are examined in the light of the strategic plan.

3.0 Strategic Goals and Objectives

KENPRO Team systematically guides the participants in formulating the strategic objectives based on the strategic issues or goals. Through focus group discussions, the team is be able to identify activities for each objective.

Against each strategic objective, the KENPRO, along with input from the participants and document analysis, develop performance targets; strategies for operationalization of these targets; key performance indicators; objective verifiable indicators of performance; timelines; resources required and assignment of responsibility for each task/activity and identification of critical assumptions that may have a bearing on realization of the set targets. This informs the development of logical framework and implementation

4.0 Resource Mobilization

For an organisation/institution to strategically position herself, resource mobilization is essential. The KENPRO team seeks to determine the funding requirement for the strategic plan, strategies to be drawn for fund acquisition, human and physical resources needs.

The following tabulated guidelines are aimed at aiding the guiding team to collect data on expected sources of funds, funding strategies, human and physical resources needs.

Expected Sources of Funding (Kshs.) Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Government (GoK)


Private Sector


Development Partners

(Bilateral and multilateral)

Other Stakeholders




Sources of Funding Funding Strategies
Private Sector
Development Partners

(Bilateral and multilateral)

Collaboration with other stakeholders


Human Resource Needs Strategies
Performance Management
Staff Motivation
Training needs


Physical Resources Needs Specification Issues Activities
Fixed assets Land
Movable Assets Motor Vehicles


Equipment & machinery


5.0 Monitoring and Evaluation

Against each strategic objective, the KENPRO Team, with input from the participants, develop line of activities to be undertaken, expected output, performance indicators, actor(s) or responsible person(s) or organization(s), timelines and resources required to meet each activity and identification of critical assumptions that may have a bearing on realization of the set targets.  The following tables present the key components of a logical framework which draws the road map for monitoring and evaluation of the strategic plan.

5.1 Logical Framework

Strategic Issue (Goal) Objectives Expected Output Performance


5.2 Implementation Matrix

Strategic Issue Planned Activity Actor/responsible Time
 Yr1 Yr2 Yr3 Yr4  Yr5


6.0 Data Collection Procedure

KENPRO takes the responsibility of designing data collection instruments (interview guides and questionnaires) to assist in collection of data from a sample of key value creation agents. These include board members, staff among other stakeholders representing the various interest groups.

7.0 Strategic Plan Execution and Submission

The Execution stage involves the following phases:

Phase 1: Validation of draft 1 to the Board among other major stakeholders. This will afford the client an opportunity to internalize the key issues/outs of the assignment and give their comments. In essence this would be a forum for validating the consultancy outputs.

Phase 2: Review of Draft 1 of the strategic plan depending on the feedback from the key stakeholders

Phase 3: Submission of the final draft to the management: KENPRO Team proceeds to prepare and submit the Final Report with the inputs/comments of the client having been incorporated. The entire process takes approximately 8 weeks.


Developing a strategic plan is a process that requires time and resources. It is not a one day undertaking. Thus, the board and major stakeholders should avail themselves to be taken through the process.

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